How to EQ a PA System - Dave Ruch

Sep 24, 2019
In-demand Healthcare Professions

If you're looking to enhance the audio quality of your live performances and achieve professional sound, understanding how to properly EQ a PA system is crucial. In this comprehensive guide, Dave Ruch offers expert tips and techniques that will take your sound reinforcement to the next level.

The Importance of EQ in a PA System

EQ (Equalization) is an essential tool for shaping and balancing the frequency response of audio signals in a PA (Public Address) system. By adjusting the EQ settings, you can optimize the sound reproduction, minimize feedback, and improve overall clarity and intelligibility.

Understanding Frequency Bands

Before diving into the specifics of EQing a PA system, it's important to have a basic understanding of frequency bands. The audible frequency range for humans is typically between 20Hz and 20kHz. Within this range, different frequency bands have distinct characteristics:

  • Sub-Bass (20Hz - 60Hz): This frequency range is responsible for deep, rumbling bass sounds. When EQing, be cautious not to overpower this range, as it can quickly muddy up the mix.
  • Bass (60Hz - 250Hz): The bass range provides warmth and body to the sound. Proper EQing can help create a solid foundation without overwhelming other instruments or vocals.
  • Low-Mid (250Hz - 2kHz): This range affects the impact and presence of instruments and vocals. Balancing the low-mid frequencies is crucial to avoid muddiness or harshness.
  • Mid (2kHz - 4kHz): The midrange carries the most important elements of human speech and many instruments' fundamental frequencies. Proper EQing here can greatly enhance intelligibility and definition.
  • Upper-Mid (4kHz - 6kHz): This range contributes to the clarity and brilliance of instruments and vocals. Careful EQ adjustments can make them stand out in the mix without becoming piercing or fatiguing.
  • Presence (6kHz - 10kHz): The presence range impacts the overall brightness and projection of the sound. Adjusting this range correctly can make your mix sound more lively and articulate.
  • Brilliance (10kHz - 20kHz): Lastly, the brilliance range adds air, shimmer, and sparkle to the sound. Slight EQ tweaks in this range can add a touch of liveliness without sounding harsh.

Setting Up Your PA System

Before diving into the EQing process, make sure your PA system is properly set up. Check the following aspects:

  1. Speaker Placement: Position the speakers according to the venue size and acoustic requirements. Aim for even coverage and avoid placing them too close to reflective surfaces.
  2. Gain Staging: Ensure the gain structure of your audio system is properly set. Avoid input overloading or excessive gain, as it can introduce distortion or noise.
  3. Feedback Prevention: Take measures to minimize the risk of feedback, such as using appropriate microphone placement, adjusting speaker angles, and utilizing feedback suppression tools if available.

EQing Process

Now that your PA system is set up, it's time to start EQing. Follow these step-by-step instructions to achieve optimal results:

1. Start with Flat EQ Settings

Begin by setting all EQ controls to their neutral or "flat" position. This ensures you're working from a neutral starting point and allows you to identify problematic frequencies more easily.

2. Test and Listen

Play a reference track or have someone speak into the microphone, and listen carefully. Pay attention to any frequencies that sound too harsh, muddy, or unbalanced.

3. Address Low-End Issues

Start by adjusting the low-end frequencies. If the sound lacks depth, try increasing the bass range slightly. Conversely, if it feels boomy or unclear, reduce the low-end to clean up the mix.

4. Tackle Midrange and Presence

Move on to the midrange frequencies. Sweep through the range using a parametric EQ, identifying any frequencies that sound boxy or nasal. Gently attenuate or boost these frequencies to achieve a more natural and clear sound.

Next, focus on the presence range. If vocals or instruments lack definition and cut-through, try increasing the presence range slightly. Be cautious not to overdo it, as it can lead to a shrill or harsh sound.

5. Refine Upper-Mid and Brilliance

Fine-tune the upper-mid frequencies to add clarity and articulation to individual instruments or vocals. Use gentle boosts to make them stand out in the mix.

Lastly, adjust the brilliance range to introduce sparkle and airiness, but be careful not to introduce excessive sibilance or harshness.

6. Test and Adjust

After making EQ adjustments, test the sound again and listen for improvements. It may require small tweaks and fine-tuning to achieve the desired results. Trust your ears and make subjective judgments based on your specific audio setup and preferences.


Mastering how to EQ a PA system is a valuable skill that can significantly enhance your live performances and ensure an enjoyable sonic experience for your audience. By understanding frequency bands, properly setting up your PA system, and following a systematic EQing process, you can achieve professional audio quality and stand out from the crowd. Put these tips into practice and unlock the full potential of your PA system today!

Shelly Yenewine
Great tips from Dave Ruch! 🎶 EQ is key for professional sound at live shows. 🎤💥
Oct 5, 2023